The Triple Alliance was an agreement between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. It was founded on May 20, 1882 and renewed regularly during the First World War until its 1915 holiday. Germany and Austria Hungary were closely linked since 1879. Italy sought support against France, shortly after losing North African ambitions to the French. Each member promised mutual support in the event of an attack by another great power. The treaty provided that Germany and Austria-Hungary would help Italy if it was attacked without provocation by France. In exchange, Italy would help Germany if it were attacked by France. In the event of a war between Austria-Hungary and Russia, Italy has promised to remain neutral. The existence and adherence of the contract were known, but its precise provisions were kept secret until 1919. One year after the reinsurance contract expired, Russia has allied itself with France. The two powers agreed to consult each other if they were at war with another nation or if the stability of Europe was threatened.
This rather loose agreement was consolidated in 1892 with the Franco-Russian Military Convention, which specifically aimed to counter the potential threat of the tripartite alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. However, after Russia`s defeat in the Russo-Japanese War and, in particular, after sir Edward Grey`s influence at the British Foreign Office, Britain began to advocate a favourable settlement. This was finally achieved in the Anglo-Russian agreement of 1907. The agreement created the international group that opposes the Triple Alliance. Officially, the nations of France, Great Britain and Russia formed the Triple Agreement. In the 19th century, the great European powers sought to maintain a balance of power throughout Europe, which led until 1900 to the existence of a complex network of political and military alliances throughout the continent. These began in 1815 with the Holy Alliance between Prussia, Russia and Austria. When Germany was unified in 1871, Prussia became an integral part of the new German nation. In October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the confederation of the three emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary, Russia and Germany. This agreement failed because Austria-Hungary and Russia could not agree on Balkan policy, leaving Germany and Austria-Hungary in a duale alliance formed in 1879. This was a method of countering Russian influence in the Balkans, as the Ottoman Empire continued to weaken.
This alliance was extended to Italy in 1882, which became a triple alliance.